The science of waste management has gained immense importance over the last few years. With industrial enhancement on the rise, the need to evolve newer meanings of the concept has risen manifold in the last few years.
Such developments have further led to the emergence of a vast number of industrial houses and production units who carry out extensive research to evolve newer strategies for waste management.
The basic concept of waste management is directed at two main goals. These include conservation of resources and preventing the impact on the environment that can be caused by the ill management of industrial and other waste.
There are a series of disposal and recycling methods that can be adopted to achieve this dual set of goals desirable from the process of waste management. The most important disposal methods include the landfills and incineration. By concept, in the disposal method, the waste is disposed in a landfill that involves burying waste, though the practice has been under some severe criticism and analysis in the last few years. However, if such landfills are designed properly and managed well for the purpose of waste management, then they can actually be followed as an inexpensive and relatively hygienic method of waste disposal.
Meanwhile, incineration is a disposal method that involves combustion of waste material. These along with other high temperature waste treatment systems is also described as thermal treatments and convert the waste materials into heat, gas, steam and ash. Carried out by both, individuals as well as the industrial units, the method of incineration is used widely to dispose of solid, liquid and gaseous waste, besides being widely recognized as a practical method of disposing of certain hazardous waste. However, incineration is quite a controversial method of waste disposal, owing to issues such as emission of gaseous pollutants.
The next key concept of waste management is the process of recycling, which is primarily the practice of extracting resources or value from waste. As with various other concepts of waste management, this step of recycling can also be carried out using various methods including the likes of physical reprocessing, biological reprocessing, and energy recovery along with avoidance and reduction methods.
The kind of waste management strategy and products to be chosen largely depends upon two different sets of factors. These include the kind of waste involved and the aim of waste management. For instance, if the objective involved is to harness the maximum possible resources from the waste products, then the methods which have the best potential of turning up productive resources shall be adopted.