The United States’ version of EPA pollution control in India is the Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB), developed in 1974 under the Water Act under the Control and Prevention of Pollution later on additionally entrusted with the 1981 Air Act under the Control and Prevention of Pollution’s powers and functions. The purpose of the CPCB is to serve as a field formation, also providing technical service to the Ministry of Environment and Forests under two provisions:
- The control board will promote cleanliness of steams and wells through prevention, control and abatement of water pollution in different State areas
- The control board will improve air quality and prevent, control and abate air pollution in India
The Central Pollution Control Board supplies New Delhi with an automatic monitoring station at ITO Intersection, with Air Quality updated every two weeks and with regular monitoring of: Sulphur Dioxide (SO2); Resirable Suspended Particulate Matter (RSPM); Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2); Carbon Monoxide (CO); Ozone (O3); and Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM). On the CPCB website is a real time pollution monitor in Delhi (check it out at: http://www.cpcb.nic.in/Introduction.php) which programs four different locations of pollutants in different area, available in one hour, eight hour and 24 hour increments for studies saying which pollutant is bad and its measurements.
The board provides two functions to its country under the National Level and as State Boards for the Union Territories responsible for carrying out legislation relating to the prevention and control of environmental air and water pollution. Whenever an industry is began in India, it first is cleared from an environmental angle reviewing its pollution potential and environmental impact through the State Pollution Control Boards and the State Environmental Committees or Site Clearance Committees.
Yet the new industry, even though it is cleared of pollution through standards set up by the CPCB, will still cause a certain amount of allowable tolerable levels of discharge/emission pollutants. These levels are based on two things: technological and economic feasibility, as the appropriate or inappropriate site may be using pollution control equipment not operating at its peak efficiency, realistically implying a higher risk of pollution than usual. Additionally, data for air quality cannot be read accurately when it is raining based on the last readings in February 13-14 of 2007. The cpcb uses special monitoring data, such as the Ambient Air and Noise Pollution Levels and Noise Monitoring Data.
Additional monitoring of by the Central Pollution Control Board is a nation-wide program of ambient air quality monitoring, referred to as the “National Air Quality Monitoring Program (NAMP). This network involves 342 stations that operate over 127 cities and towns, 26 states, and 4 Union Territories of India with an agenda of determining the status and trends of ambient air quality, preventing violation of ambient air quality standards. The monitoring system of water pollution under the Central Pollution Control Board involves collaboration with the SPCBs/PCCs, which established a large network of 1019 water quality monitoring stations in 27 states and 6 Union Territories. Done on a monthly or quarterly basis, it covers three creeks, 200 rivers, 13 canals, five tanks, 60 lakes, 17 drains, three ponds, and 321 groundwater stations.